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How Cough Forms in Human Body Animation - How Coughing Works Video - Mechanism of Cough Reflex

How Cough Forms in Human Body Animation – How Coughing Works Video – Mechanism of Cough Reflex


Coughing is a sudden expulsion of air from the lungs through the epiglottis at an amazingly fast speed (estimated at 100 miles per hour). With such a strong force of air, coughing is the body’s mechanism for clearing the breathing passageways of unwanted irritants.

In order for a cough to occur, several events need to take place in sequence. First, the vocal cords open widely, allowing additional air to pass through into the lungs. Then the epiglottis closes off the windpipe (larynx), and simultaneously, the abdominal and rib muscles contract, increasing the pressure behind the epiglottis. With the increased pressure, the air is forcefully expelled, and creates a rushing sound as it moves very quickly past the vocal cords. The rushing air dislodges the irritant, making it possible to breathe comfortably again.
The cough reflex has both sensory (afferent) mainly via the vagus nerve and motor (efferent) components. Pulmonary irritant receptors (cough receptors) in the epithelium of the respiratory tract are sensitive to both mechanical and chemical stimuli. The bronchi and trachea are so sensitive to light touch that slight amounts of foreign matter or other causes of irritation initiate the cough reflex. The larynx and carina are especially sensitive, and the terminal bronchioles and even the alveoli are sensitive to chemical stimuli such as sulfur dioxide gas or chlorine gas. The rapidly moving air usually carries with it any foreign matter that is present in the bronchi or trachea. Stimulation of the cough receptors by dust or other foreign particles produces a cough, which is necessary to remove the foreign material from the respiratory tract before it reaches the lungs.
Physiology
The cough receptors, or rapidly adapting irritant receptors are located mainly on the posterior wall of the trachea, pharynx, and at the carina of trachea, the point where the trachea branches into the main bronchi. The receptors are less abundant in the distal airways, and absent beyond the respiratory bronchioles. When triggered, impulses travel via the internal laryngeal nerve, a branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which stems from the vagus nerve (CN X), to the medulla of the brain. This is the afferent neural pathway. Unlike other areas responsible for involuntary actions like swallowing, there is no definitive area that has been identified as the cough center in the brain.
The efferent neural pathway then follows, with relevant signals transmitted back from the cerebral cortex and medulla via the vagus and superior laryngeal nerves to the glottis, external intercostals, diaphragm, and other major inspiratory and expiratory muscles. The mechanism of a cough is as follows:
• Diaphragm (innervated by phrenic nerve) and external intercostal muscles (innervated by segmental intercostal nerves) contract, creating a negative pressure around the lung.
• Air rushes into the lungs in order to equalise the pressure.
• The glottis closes (muscles innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve) and the vocal cords contract to shut the larynx.
• The abdominal muscles contract to accentuate the action of the relaxing diaphragm; simultaneously, the other expiratory muscles contract. These actions increase the pressure of air within the lungs.
• The vocal cords relax and the glottis opens, releasing air at over 100 mph.
• The bronchi and non-cartilaginous portions of the trachea collapse to form slits through which the air is forced, which clears out any irritants attached to the respiratory lining.
Stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagus nerve supplying the ear may also elicit a cough. This is known as Arnold’s reflex. Respiratory muscle weakness, tracheostomy, or vocal cord pathology (including paralysis or anesthesia) may prevent effective clearing of the airways.
Dysfunction
The reflex is impaired in the person whose abdominals and respiratory muscles are weak. This problem can be caused by disease condition that lead to muscle weakness or paralysis, by prolonged inactivity, or as outcome of surgery involving these muscles. Bed rest interferes with the expansion of the chest and limits the amount of air that can be taken into the lungs in preparation for coughing, making the cough weak and ineffective. This reflex may also be impaired by damage to the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which relays the afferent branch of the reflex arc. This nerve is most commonly damaged by swallowing a foreign object, such as a chicken bone, resulting in it being lodged in the piriform recess (in the laryngopharynx) or by surgical removal of said object.
Testing
The cough reflex can be tested by inhaling air with nebulized 200µmol/l capsaicin.

Having a cough is one of the most common reasons for seeing your doctor. Coughing is important to keep your throat and airways clear by getting rid of mucus or other irritating particles. However, a long-lasting (chronic) or severe cough may mean you have an underlying disease or disorder.

source

27 Comments

Join the discussion and tell us your opinion.

Natasha Nattiereply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Who's watching this while having chronic cough ??

Grace Zoereply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

High on a Monday night, never questioned this before in my life

nico preply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

I'm here, high af, coughing my lungs out from a bong rip

AdmiraLreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

The most boring one

Kamlesh Amlanireply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

👍 yes 👍 Rite 👍 video 👍 K 👍 yes 👍

Scuairreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Pov: you got cold

Douglasreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Who else up in the middle of the night YouTubing random shit

Praveen Jaiswalreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Usefull couphing pals😂😂😂😂😂😂😎🍝🌽

Aditya Singhreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

♡BLINK♡reply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

When I cough there a sound came like dog is barking if anyone know anything then please help me because it gets worse and it's been 4 months please help me and wish for that I get recover faster

ScienceDiscovererreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

How 100 mph is faster than a speeding supersonic bullet?

Steven is the Stevenreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

What if you vomit

Hanok Princereply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

So finally cough is due to vocal chords

Purushotham. Sreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

What is the solution

Nagu kudarireply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Suffering from dry cough after talking much in phone, anyone reply , why I'm facing this problem?

Shivani Chhabrareply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

MERE SISTER KO BHOUT TIME S COUGH KE PROBLEM THIFIR OS NAY YOUTUBE PLANET AYURVEDA KE ADD DEKHI OS NAYPLANET AYURVEDA K VASAKA CAPSULES USE KIYEY AB OS KE PROBLEM BILKUL THE HAI

Iñaki Solibioreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

I searching it, because i have a cough,

Lovepreet Singhreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Recently i faced this thing. i started coughing 6 to 7 months ago i ignored it initially considering it would subside on its own but it rather became worse. it was given various syrups from different doctors but nothing really worked .then i used Kaas har churna from Planet ayurveda and it gave me amazing results.

Anisur Rahmanreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Does coughing too hard damage your epiglottis ? I coughted with force and my throats insides towards the left felt like it's been pierced with many needles…..is it dangerous to cough too hard?

Lost Musicreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

You all searched this 👍

John davidsonreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

very well explained as my daughter has also suffered from chronic cough and none of us were able to understand the reason behind it and we came across Planet Ayurveda from where we ordered their herbal medicines and now she is doing much better.

Farid Ahmedreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Informative

Kapaalu Roastreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Nice job

M Jkreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Thank you so much ❤️❤️

nilesh robertreply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Why there is great sound with lots of pressure while coughing please help me to know

Benitta Josphinereply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Anyone coughing while watching ?

A. B.reply
March 17, 2022 at 12:08 am

Why does this video only mention the epiglottis closing but not the glottis? Wouldn't the vocal folds close during a cough?

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